Architectural Illustration

Architecture as a discipline uses drawing as a way to describe buildings and structures. Architectural illustrators are employed by architects, heritage centres and property-based businesses. Illustration can do important things that photography cannot, and is used in two main  ways:

  • to draw up plans and diagrams. This uses technical language and techniques aimed to objectively and accurately represent the topography of a building and its parts.
  • to visualise proposed projects and buildings – imagining the built environment.

Illustrators need to have an eye for detail,  understand proportion and perspective, have good observational skills and a drawing style that can convey complex structures. However not all architectural illustration is technical and dry.

Different architectural illustrators approach the task of documenting visual space and the built environment in different ways. They differ in choice of drawing approach, and how the perspective and materials used relates to the architecture itself:

  • some are driven by the ideas that drawing and illustration offers
  • some by the ideas inherent in the architectural styles they’re representing.

They may produce very different effects supporting or contradicting the ideas underlying the buildings, for example:

  • glossy images used by a developer to suggest the idea of luxury
  • approaches may seem at odds with the spaces they’re representing.

Project 2.3 Architectural Illustration: Port of London Authority and Walkie Talkie

 

Key Resources on architectural illustration

The Society of Architectural Illustrators

Represents ‘professionals who bring architecture to life’. Their illustrators / SAI members A–Z section shows a wide range of different approaches.
www.sai.org.uk

Archigram (1961–1974)
A group of architects influenced by avant-garde art movements who playfully challenged assumptions about modern architecture. All of their work was presented as proposals, through drawings and collage. A very different approach to representing and visualising architecture through drawing.

Illustration web Architecture Section

The Royal Institute of British Architecture (RIBA)
Has a series of online workshops, videos and other resources exploring architectural history, drawing and design. Useful to gain a broader perspective on architectural ideas.
www.architecture.com

Michael Blower archive
Examples of British architect Michael Blower’s sketchbooks are available via the website:
http://www.vads.ac.uk

Photorealistic 3D and CGI imaging

Top of the list of Google Search for Architectural Illustration are companies doing photorealistic 3D and CGI imaging, some with animation. This is a very specialised field requiring a high level of 3D Digital skill – not something I could aspire to.

RenderImage

GNet3D

Graphite/ink/charcoal

Michael Vaughan
Michael; Vaughan
Michael; Vaughan
Michael Vaughan
Michael Vaughan

Watercolour/ink and wash/acrylic

Some of this merges into street/travel illustration.

Philip Bannister
Philip Bannister watercolour
Philip Bannister watercolour
Philip Bannister ink
Philip Bannister ink
John Walsom

He sets up perspective views on a drawing board in the traditional way and uses a range of stencils for ellipses and curves, working with pencils, brushes and paint. His watercolour images are usually more detailed and accurate than his acrylic paintings. He spends more time doing the drawing than the painting. He also paints in oils en plein air – he likes to work fast with the changing light.

John Walsom
John Walsom
John Walsom
John Walsom

Mixed media

Lucia Emanuela Curzi

Lucia often brings together lots of photographic references and creates a preliminary collage as well as doing some sketches. Her actual illustrations are created on paper using ink, watercolour, pastels, pens or acrylic – though not necessarily all together.  However she does use Photoshop to tweak and perfect a piece. Also fashion.

Lucia Emanuela Curzi
Lucia Emanuela Curzi
Lucia Emanuela Curzi
Lucia Emanuela Curzi

Digital

 

Fujio Yoshida
Fujio Yoshida
Fujio Yoshida
Fujio Yoshida
Fujio Yoshida
Mike Hall

Clean with some Photorealism. Hand-drawn imagery and coloured digitally. Sometimes he combines drawn print designs with digital elements to build up an image. Sometimes, he’ll also draw his map designs using vector graphics.

Mike Hall
Mike Hall
Mike Hall
Mike Hall
Cliff Mills

more stylised influenced by Pop Art. Drawn with pen and ink then scanned and coloured in Photoshop.

Cliff Mills
Cliff Mills
Cliff Mills
Cliff Mills
Juliet Percival

She works from a graphite or pen drawing, sometimes with a subtle watercolour background. This is scanned in and coloured digitally using Photoshop’s brushes or flat colours.

Juliet Percival
Juliet Percival
Juliet Percival
Juliet Percival
Decue Wu

Uses different compositions, and bold colors in a limited palette, often creating patterns. Most of her work is done using Photoshop and Illustrator, but she also combines hand-made textures, screenprinting and collage work. Also does Fashion.

Decu Wu
Decu Wu
Decue Wu
Decue Wu
Thilo Rothaker
Thilo Rothaker
Thilo Rothaker
Thilo Rothaker
Thilo Rothaker

3D Sculpture

Model Making on SAI

Tobias Wustefeld

Tobias creates little worlds in bringing together digital and traditional techniques. He draws designs by hand and finishes them in 3D with the computer.

Tobias Wustefeld
Tobias Wustefeld
Tobias Wustefeld
Tobias Wustefeld
Alex Hogrefe
Alex Hogrefe
Alex Hogrefe

Visualising Architecture

Interesting Tutorial on using SketchUp

Andre Chiote
Andre Chiote ?ercedes Benw Building
Andre Chiote Mercedes Benz Building

5 abstract illustrations

Drawing and Seeing

Alphonso Dunn


A very good series on the process of constructing a scene.
First think about the type of line – drawing with arm, wrist or fingers. Framing and focus. Can see things in different ways. Importance of simplification.

 What is illustration practice?

Illustration uses drawing and other forms of image-making to bring ideas and information to life. It involves the ability to think about the content and ideas, creatively develop visual ideas, within ones own visual language or ‘voice’.

Illustration practice covers a lot of different areas and illustrators fulfil many different roles within them. There are many areas of crossover but illustration practice can broadly be organised around functions of:

  • technical: provides visual information to help the viewer understand something from a specialist perspective. This can include for example showing the inside of machinery, architectural illustration, medical illustration, botanical illustration. Technical illustration overlaps into the area of information graphics or infographics, which is a way of depicting statistics and information in visual ways.
  • narrative: tell stories visually is used in many different ways from book covers
    to children’s books, graphic novels to comic strips.Visual storytelling may mean working with writers, interpreting their ideas or re-telling their stories. However narrative illustration also covers illustrators who are also authors, either as writers of children’s books, graphic novels or as animators.The games industry is a new area for the narrative illustrator, providing ways to tell stories more interactively, with multiple endings.
  • editorial: provides a form of commentary through visual means.Editorial illustration covers cartoons satirising daily life, reportage illustrators documenting and reflecting on the world, or individuals using illustration as a means to say something themselves.
  • persuasion: part of the design and advertising industries from logo design to billboards, TV adverts to posters. In addition to commercial clients, public sector organisations, charities, local community groups and others also need to persuade and provide identity through illustration.

In contemporary illustration, developments in digital technology have created new ways of working, printing and distributing work. Some contemporary illustrators have been driven by fringe subcultural activities to explore a range of different roles within urban street art, the writing and illustrating of graphic novels and fanzines, or producing work for sale in galleries. Many contemporary illustrators have blurred the lines between illustrator, author, and artist.

Mesh Drawings

This is a new area for exploration that builds on some experiments I did for printmaking monoprints and collagraph.

I started to use netting from oranges, garlic and other fruit while doing Assignment 1 Octavia. These are of different types – thin string, plastic and different thicknesses that can be cut, stretched, twisted and combined into images.

My intention was to then go over these experiments in white or black acrylic paint as with the glue drawings. But then I see also ways of using photographs digitally.

So a technique where there are quite a lot of possibilities for integrating into my images in different ways.

Charcoal Drawing

I really like the dark moody tone of charcoal. In the past I have used a range of techniques. Using willow/vine, compressed and condensed charcoal on different types of paper. I do have to be careful though using charcoal as I have a lot of problems with the dust.

One way of overcoming this is to use pencil and then charcoal pencil.

Inspiration for improving technique

Pencil and charcoal pencil for hyperrealism

 

Pencil Drawing

I really enjoy using pencil in different ways.

Line and sketching

I also collect all the sharpenings from graphite sticks in a small container to use as graphite powder for shading – taking care not to inhale this.

Some earlier drawings using this technique

Drawings for Hybrids.

Inspiration for pencil technique

I want to significantly improve my pencil drawing, both dynamism of line and also hyperrealism.

JD Hilberry

Glue Drawings

I had often earlier used PVA glue with ink because I like the random ways in which it mixes to create interesting textures for landscapes and abstracts. Some drawings from my earlier OCA courses are given below.

While doing the Invisible Cities Assignment I discovered glue drawings as I was looking for something ‘sticky’ for Octavia spider webs. I suddenly noticed some of the drips from the PVA glue bottle as I was making collage and thought this might be very interesting to make spiders webs with drops of rain, and very thin lines. So I made three random images in my sketchbook that roughly had some sort of spider’s web, but basically just playing.

The first of these I rubbed over with graphite powder (I collect sharpenings from graphite sticks in a small container). I really liked the smoky effect. I then used a water brush and started to polish up some of the areas and found I could get really interesting gradations.

The second I covered with charcoal and rubbed off the excess from the raised parts.

The third sketch I painted over with black acrylic and a credit card. Then drew into this with white conte and pastel to accentuate raised areas and get some tone shading.

Finally I photographed cropped areas and experimented with different effects in Photoshop – mainly curves and invert. I could take this much further using masks, but have not had the time.

I really like the effects I obtained just by doodling. But this technique – together with earlier PVA and painting techniques – have a lot more potential for further development now I have some idea how things work. There is also a lot more I could do incorporating digital blending and masking into the workflow – some of which I did in Assessment 1 Octavia. But a lot to be further explored – I could colour parts and be more extreme in my blend mode choices.

Michael Craig-Martin

Page in process – I have read much more than is presented here on his theories on art.

Official website

Wikipedia

Tate

Sir Michael Craig-Martin (born 28 August 1941) is an Irish-British contemporary conceptual artist and painter. He is noted for fostering the Young British Artists, many of whom he taught, and for his conceptual artwork, An Oak Tree. He is Emeritus Professor of Fine Art at Goldsmiths. His memoir and advice for the aspiring artist, On Being An Artist, was published by London-based publisher Art / Books in April 2015.

His art is characterised by flat colour and line.

Colour theory

In visual perception a color is almost never seen as it really is – as it physically is. This fact makes color the most relative medium in art.

Albers  Interaction of Color 1963 p1

Our perception of colour depends on both physical factors relating to the way the eye registers light and more psychological and cultural factors that affect the way the brain reacts to and interprets colours and their relationships to each other.

Artists and designers have used and experimented with complexities and ambiguities in interactions between physical and psychological dimensions of colour to portray emotions and question the nature of perception. They may choose to focus on local or optical colour.

Some key implications of colour theory for illustration:

  • Artists may choose to focus on local or optical colour. Or use completely arbitrary colours to impose their own feelings and interpretation onto the image.
  • Tone is perceived first, then colours (yellow first), and then the image. Using flat primary colours will detract attention from the image – making colour the subject and tending towards abstraction of shapes.
  • Optical mixing is inevitable as the brain interprets colours, successive and simultaneous contrast.
  • Consider the effects of using strokes around shapes to increase or reduce colour vibration effects.
  • Precisely replicating colours across different media is difficult (eg RGB and CMYK) and devices (different printers and monitors).
  • It is desirable to allow for individual differences in perception eg colour-blindness or epileptic reactions. Some software allow for simulation of the ways in which images will be differently viewed.
  • It is important to be aware of cultural differences in interpretation of colour depending on ones audience.
  • All these factors affect the relationship between colours and harmony/tension in composition of an image and the ways in which the image as a whole will be interpreted.

Notes on Colour Theory

What follows brings together my notes and experimentation from previous painting, photography and printmaking courses and updates these notes as relevant for this course. See references at then end.

Physical factors

Light

Light consists of rays of different wavelengths. When light strikes a surface, certain wavelengths are absorbed and others are reflected by its pigments. Different combinations of reflected wavelengths form all the observed colours.

Eye to brain

As light passes into the eye it strikes the retina at the back of the eye which consists of layers of cells including:

  • rods – that perceive black and white and allow us to see dimly lit forms
  • cones – that help us perceive hues. The cones in the eye only recognise red (long wavelengths), blue-violet (short wavelengths) and green (middle wavelengths). They relay these colour messages to the cones of the fovea, an area at the centre of the retina, whose cones transmit to the brain.

The brain then assimilates the red, blue-violet and green impulses and mixes them into a single message that informs us of the colour being viewed.

Perceptions of colour vary significantly between individuals depending on eye and brain biology eg degrees of blindness to particular colours, ways in which stimuli pass along the optic nerve etc.

There are many other factors affecting our perception of a colour, such as:

  • the surroundings of the object
  • its surface texture
  • the lighting conditions under which it is seen.

How much of a colour is used, whether it is bright, dull, light or dark, and where it is placed in relation to another colour are also crucial factors in our perception. A distinction is usually made between:

  • local colour: the wavelengths that are reflected by a surface under conditions of white light
  • optical colour: the combination of local colour with light striking it and other surrounding colours

 

Dimensions of colour

Hue
Pure hues: A colour without any black, grey, white or complementary is called a pure hue and occurs in Newton’s light spectrum.

  • Primary colours are those which cannot be mixed using other colours
  • Secondaries the result of mixing two primaries
  • Tertiary colours, the result of mixing secondaries with one of their adjacent secondaries.

Broken hues are the result of mixing these pure hues with their complement to produce browns and greys.

However there is significant variation between colour theorists as to how they identify primary colours, and also between additive methods (RGB used where light is added and where white is the result of mixing all light wavelengths) and subtractive methods (CMYK and pigment mixing as in printmaking or paint where black is the result of mixing all colours). Moreover pigments are rarely pure. The results from mixing also depend on the relative colour temperature of each of the colours being mixed.

Value

The lightness or darkness of a hue, or tone. Pure hues vary in value from yellow (lightest) to violet (darkest) This means that  mixing them will also alter the value. If you squint when looking at two hues of similar value they will merge together. When pigments of equal value are mixed together this gives a darker value because more wavelengths are absorbed and fewer reflected.

Value changes convey texture, are used for shadows and form. Sharp contrasts in value produce the effect of precision, firmness, objectivity and alertness. Close values produce feelings of haziness, softness, quiet, rest, brooding etc. Dark compositions give feelings of night, darkness, mystery and fear. Light compositions of illumination, clarity and optimism. Middle values are relaxed and often go unnoticed.

Discords: when the value of a hue is altered by the addition of black, white or another colour opposite to its natural value order eg adding violet and white to make lavender.

intensity (also termed saturation or chroma) defines the degree of purity or brightness (as opposed to light) or how dull (as opposed to dark) a colour is.

Pure hues are those where there is no black, white or complementary colour added. When pure black or pure white are present they are noticed before the other hues and colours present. Pure hues differ in chroma strength – lighter hues have stronger chromatic strength. Pure hues can be dulled to coloured greys through adding grey of the same value. Or mixing with complementaries to produce a shade.

Neutral greys can be obtained through mixing false pairs – orange and green, green and violet, violet and orange. But they tend to favour one of the parent hues and are less powerful than those made by combining complementary hues. They can also be produced through layering.

Intensity can create effects on objects in space.

  • high intensities make an object seem large and pushes it forward in the visual field
  • light pure values like yellow advance most on a dark background and least on a white background
  • pure hues have a relative strength. if balance is required, they should be used in the right proportion.

Temperature
Temperature refers to the warmness or coolness of colour.

  • Warm hues are reds and secondary and tertiary hues of red (warm yellows, yellow-orange, orange, orange-red, red and red-violet). Warm hues appear nearer to us and are generally more stimulating.
  • Cool hues are blues and secondary and tertiary hues of blue (cool lemon yellows,  greens and bluish violet. Cool hues appear further away and are generally more relaxing.

Cultural factors

Cultural background and experiences affect a colour’s impact.

Factors such as linguistic distinctions can affect perception of colour – in some languages there is no distinction between blue and green and so although people can distinguish when questioned they do not make an immediate distinction.

The ways in which colours are interpreted will vary between cultures and for different groups, and even from individual to individual. Even where colours are perceived similarly, they may mean different things – in Asian cultures white is associated with death. Red is associated with happiness and luck. In Western cultures black is associated with death and white with purity. Red is associated with danger and blood.

Colour associations are also influenced by the types of pigments available and their material value. For example:

  • blue   lapis lazuli for the madonna
  • purple   mollusc in ancient greece so royalty
  • ochres and earth colour
  • red vermillion:  marriage and luck in Asian cultures
  • black: means purity in Islamic cultures
  • white purity. turns away other colours.

Colour harmony

Colour harmonies have conventionally been categorised as:

  • Monochromatic: a single hue with its tints and shades produced by mixing with white, black (or its complement)
  • Analogous: three or more hues that are next to each other on the colour wheel. Analogous schemes are most emphatic when the common hue is primary. They are most harmonious when the middle hue is primary (eg red-orange, red, red-violet rather than orange, red-orange and red).
  • Complementary: colours opposite each other on the colour wheel. But different artists may use different colour wheels, complements are different between RGB and CMYK.
  • Split complementary: a colour and the two colours surrounding its complement.
  • Triad: equidistant on the colour wheel. These result in a dominance of warm or cool.
  • Quadrad: where the four hues are equidistant on the colour wheel.

However in recent years colour choices have become much more varied, partly because of artist experimentation to ‘break the rules’, different cultural influences and also because of the rise of digital software that enable the rapid generation of a range of colour options – for example Adobe colour.

Colour interactions

Itten and Albers studied the interaction between hues and the ways in which our perception of hues and tones is altered radically by the other colours surrounding them. The effects of interactions can be altered by using coloured strokes around shapes.

  • Successive contrast: perception of each colour is followed by perception of its complement as eye and brain adapt – this is seen by staring at a colour for some time then closing one’s eyes.
  • Simultaneous contrast: where adjacent colours interact with each other. Simultaneous contrast is most intense when the two colours are complementary colours.
  • Vibration where certain hues meet: Disappearing boundaries: where analogous hues meet. Dissolving boundaries: where broken hues meet
    This can be used to create mysterious effects. Or combatted using sharp edges.
  • Discords play a supporting role – they are easily overshadowed by colours that are not discorded, but they stop the tendency of hues to spread visually. Large areas in discorded colours should be avoided as they weaken a composition. But small areas reduce monotony. Light discords also produce the best highlights (because they are unexpected and attract attention??) The discord chosen should be based on the primary colour closest to the object featured in the highlight, or the next closest primary on the colour wheel.

When colours or shades of grey are sequenced in a composition leading from light to dark or dark to light then the eye is comfortable. But when the sequence is broken eg grey background, followed by white then black then the effect is jarring eg dramatic skies. El Greco View of Toledo.

Rhythm, repetition and movement

Repeating colours can lead the eye through a composition and create a sense of movement.

Emphasis can be accomplished by using colour in a number of ways

  • colour contrast: bright/dull, light/dark, warm/cool
  • area size: large areas of a colour versus small
  • texture: rough versus smooth
  • use of arbitrary colour
  • unusual detailing
  • contrast with surroundings

Harmony can be achieved through:

  • repetition
  • similarity
  • use of tonality
  • surrounding a colour with a neutral colour

Inspiration

References

Albers, J. (1963). Interaction of Colour. New Haven & London, Yale University Press.

Barringer, T., et al. (2012). David Hockney: A Bigger Picture. London, Royal Academy of the Arts.

Batchelor, D., Ed. (2008). Colour. London and Cambridge Mass., Whitechapel Gallery and the MIT Press.

Britain, T. (2013). Gary Hume. London, Tate Publishing.

Davis, G. (2008). 2000 Colour Palette Swatches : The Designer’s Toolkit. East Sussex, UK, ILEX.

Dobie, J. (1986). Making Color Sing : Practical lessons in Color and Design. New York, Watson-Guptill Publications.

Eiseman, L. (2000). Pantone Guide to Communicating with Colour. Cincinatti, Ohio, GRAFIXPRESS.

Feisner, E. A. (2000). Colour : How to Use Colour in Art and Design. London, Laurence King Publishing.

Gage, J. (1999). Colour and Meaning: Art, Science and Symbolism. London, Thames & Hudson.

Greenwood, K. (2015). 100 Years of Colour : Beautiful Images and Inspirational Palettes from a Century of Innovative Art, Illustration and Design. London, ILEX.

Hornung, D. (2005). Colour : a workshop for artists and designers. London, Laurence King Publishing.

Hudson, T. (2004). Hockney’s Pictures, Thames & Hudson.

Itten, J. (1961). The Elements of Colour. London, Wiley.

Jennings, S. (2003). Artists’ Colour Manual, Collins.

Livingstone, M. (2005). Patrick Caulfield. London, Lund Humphries.

Lynton, N. (2007). William Scott. London, Thames & Hudson.

Parker, A. (2005). Seven Deadly Colours: the Genius of Nature’s Palette. London, Natural History Museum.

Parker, S. (2016). Colour and Vision through the eyes of nature, London, Natural History Museum.

Roque, G. (2009). Art et Science de la Couleur: Chevreul et les peintres, de Delacroix a l’abstraction, Gallimard.

Sausmarez, J. de. (2008). Basic Colour : A Practical Handbook. London, Herbert Press.

Stevens, C. and A. Wilson, Eds. (2017). David Hockney. London, Tate Enterprises.

Wilcox, M. (1987). Blue and Yellow don’t make Green: How to mix the colour you really want – every time. Penrith, Australia, School of Colour Publications.

Zelanski, P. and M. P. Fisher (1989). Colour. London, Herbert Press.

Useful links

Color Matters wide general overview

Cambridge in colour – technical notes on colour perception, colour harmony and colour management for photographers.

Color Art has notes on vision science and art

David Hockney

Sources:

website: http://www.hockneypictures.com  – NB strict copyright so videos only are shown here

Barringer, T., Devaney, E., Drabble, M., Gayford, M., Livingstone, M. & Salomon, X. F. 2012. David Hockney: A Bigger Picture, London, Royal Academy of the Arts.

Hudson, T. 2004. Hockney’s Pictures, Thames & Hudson.

Stevens, C. & Wilson, A. (eds.) 2017. David Hockney, London: Tate Enterprises.

Biography timeline

Google images

Hockney is important for many aspects of my illustration work:

  • interest in perspective and bending the rules
  • exploration of colour
  • use of photography, video and collage
  • use of iPad and other digital media

Use of perspective

Hockney is particularly interested in the process of seeing. This includes his examination of use of one-point perspective by ‘old masters’, and particularly the more isometric perspective used in Chinese scroll art.

Use of colour

Hockney has often experimented in his paintings with brilliant and vibrant colour combinations as in exhibitions at the Tate Britain and Royal Academy.

Born with synesthesia, Hockney sees synesthetic colours in response to musical stimuli. This does not show up in his painting or photography artwork, but is a common underlying principle in his designs for stage sets for ballet and opera—where he bases background colours and lighting on the colours he sees while listening to the piece’s music.

The “joiners” : photocollages

Photographs do not see space. We see space. Without vanishing points

In the early 1980s, Hockney began to produce photo collages, which he called “joiners”, first using Polaroid prints and subsequently 35mm, commercially-processed color prints. Using Polaroid snaps or photolab-prints of a single subject, Hockney arranged a patchwork to make a composite image. An early photomontage was of his mother. Because the photographs are taken from different perspectives and at slightly different times, the result is work that has an affinity with Cubism, one of Hockney’s major aims—discussing the way human vision works. Some pieces are landscapes, such as Pearblossom Highway #2, others portraits, such as Kasmin 1982, and My Mother, Bolton Abbey, 1982.

Creation of the “joiners” occurred accidentally. He noticed in the late sixties that photographers were using cameras with wide-angle lenses. He did not like these photographs because they looked somewhat distorted. While working on a painting of a living room and terrace in Los Angeles, he took Polaroid shots of the living room and glued them together, not intending for them to be a composition on their own. On looking at the final composition, he realized it created a narrative, as if the viewer moved through the room. He began to work more with photography after this discovery and stopped painting for a while to exclusively pursue this new technique. Frustrated with the limitations of photography and its ‘one eyed’ approach, however, he returned to painting.

Computer art

In December 1985, Hockney used the Quantel Paintbox, a computer program that allowed the artist to sketch directly onto the screen. Using the program was similar to drawing on the PET film for prints, with which he had much experience. The resulting work was featured in a BBC series that profiled a number of artists.

Since 2009, Hockney has painted hundreds of portraits, still lifes and landscapes using the Brushes iPhone and iPad application, often sending them to his friends. His show Fleurs fraîches (Fresh flowers) was held at La Fondation Pierre Bergé in Paris. A Fresh-Flowers exhibit opened in 2011 at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, featuring more than 100 of his drawings on 25 iPads and 20 iPods. In late 2011, Hockney revisited California to paint Yosemite National Park on his iPad. For the season 2012–2013 in the Vienna State Opera he designed, on his iPad, a large scale picture (176 sqm) as part of the exhibition series Safety Curtain, conceived by museum in progress.

Google images for iPad art

iphone drawings

 Portraits

David Hockney’s portraits in crayon, ink, water colour and paint show an amazing sensitivity in treatment and line.

Google images of David Hockney portraits

In October 2006 National Portrait Gallery in London organized one of the largest ever displays of Hockney’s portraiture work, including 150 paintings, drawings, prints, sketchbooks, and photocollages from over five decades. The collection ranged from his earliest self-portraits to work he completed in 2005. Hockney assisted in displaying the works and the exhibition, which ran until January 2007, was one of the gallery’s most successful.

See article on 2006 exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery by Janet McKenzie