Ethiopia context

Ethiopia profile

History timeline

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13351397

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13349398

History and overview
http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/knowledge/Ethiopia.html

World Bank on Ethiopia economy
http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/ethiopia/overview

Critique
https://www.pambazuka.org/governance/ethiopia-analysis-recent-economic-growth-and-potential-challenges

World Bank report on local government decision-making
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/Resources/Ethiopia.pdf

Aid to spice girls
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/12/19/ethiopian-spice-girls-given-5m-british-foreign-aid-despite-previous/

Agriculture
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_Ethiopia

Position of women
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_Ethiopia

Politics of Ethiopia
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Ethiopia

2005 police massacres
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005_Ethiopian_police_massacres

Ethiopia human rights
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_in_Ethiopia

Oromia

http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/et-or.html  

http://www.gadaa.com/index.html

http://www.gadaa.com/religion.html

Economic development

http://hornaffairs.com/2017/03/18/explaining-economic-revolution-oromia-pseudo-oromo-activists/

Political unrest: roots of conflict
Music 

https://oromosounds.com

A search for ‘Oromia music’ on You Tube brings up lots of Bollywood style romantic songs about Oromia – interesting from an anthropological point of view. There are also some interesting films in Oromiffa that show snapshots of Oromo life – if generally somewhat biased from a middle class perspective.

Proverbs and folk tales

http://tellemchaho.blogspot.nl/2010/04/kan-darbe-yaadatani-isa-gara-fuula-dura.html

 

Ethiopian Art: Traditional

Wikipedia

Ethiopian art from the 4th century until the 20th can be divided into two broad groupings.Its history goes back almost three thousand years to the kingdom of D’mt.

Christian Art

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has been the predominant religion in Ethiopia for over 1500 years, for most of this period in a very close relation, or union, with the Coptic Christianity of Egypt, so that Coptic art has been the main formative influence on Ethiopian church art. The distinctive tradition of Christian art, mostly for churches, in forms including painting, crosses, icons, illuminated manuscripts, and other metalwork such as crowns.


Ethiopian Cross
Ethiopian Cross

 Handicrafts

Secondly there are popular arts and crafts such as textiles, basketry and jewellery, in which Ethiopian traditions are closer to those of other peoples in the region.

Basket weaving

Pottery Ethiopia

Ethiopian Jewish Pottery
Ethiopian Falasha Jewish Pottery

Pottery Design

Ethiopia Community Tourism

Ethiopian potters are traditionally women and inherit their skills from their mothers. Typical functional pottery includes desti (pots), insera (water pot), and mitad (injera pan). Many of the items are essential elements of the traditional Ethiopian coffee ceremony including the jebena(coffee pot), gulcha (stove), and arso (incense burner). Most of the pieces are burnished and finished with a black color although often speckled with brown and reddish hues.

In the south and southwest of Ethiopia potters will often decorate the pots with their fingers or pieces of straw. Decoration usually includes straight lines in v-shapes or horizontal series or a ring of small bumps around the pot. One of the largest pieces made in Ethiopia is the gani (brewing pot) which is used to prepare local beer.

Pottery Making Techniques

Traditional Ethiopian pottery is made from three types of clay collected by hand. The clay is pulverized into a powder and mixed with water to create a flexible paste. Most potters do not use a potter’s wheel but rather a flat, round plate which supports the piece of pottery and also indicates size and shape of the piece. In recent years, some potters have received help from development programs which provide them with pottery wheels and training on modern pottery making techniques. Those working without a wheel build pots using either the spiral coiling technique or a traditional method of moving around the pots.

Once the basic shape is created, the artisans dry the unfired form in the sun. Many potters then burnish their pottery to make the exterior shiny. Burnishing is typically very time consuming and involves rubbing dried (but unfired) pottery with a smooth river stone, piece of bamboo, or leather rag to give the piece a smooth and shiny surface texture. Burnishing was developed before glazes existed to make pottery more waterproof. After burnishing, the artisans fire the pottery in a rudimentary kiln, often only a hole in the ground, where the objects are covered and fired with dry cow dung and hay. Usually potters in the same village will share a firing area that is used only once a week.

Most Ethiopian pottery is either natural clay colored or black. The black color is created by coating the object in oil and then firing it in the kiln. After, the objects are left to cool under a mound of dried eucalyptus leaves giving them a black patina. Although most pottery is unglazed, some potters in the South will waterproof pots by heating them and then pouring cold milk into the pot or using the residue of local beer or coffee to seal it. Alternatively, a small group of potters use a simple resin glaze made from the leaves of the ketketa bush or from the sap of the euphorbia. Occasionally, artisans will paint pottery after it has been fired to add further decoration. Recent efforts have been made to improve Ethiopian pottery and a few cooperatives located near Addis Ababa have successfully worked with women to create high quality pottery products.