2.2 Shutterscapes 2: Landscapes of Place 5: Presentation: Zemni 2021 6.2: Colours of Luzon 6.3: Land of DU30 6: JourneyasBeginning In Process

Colour Photography Styles

Reality/surreality/hyperreality. Mechanical vs art. Looking back from digital colour and high levels of control. Capturing images is now so easy. And possibilities of control at shooting and processing stages so broad. Often lose the aesthetics and meaning.

Early Colour BBC 1974 overview of early colour photographers and techniques: tinting, gum bichromate, oil process, 3-colour process and autochrome.
George Eastman Museum 2014. Pigment processes: carbon prints and gum bichromate prints were developed in the 1850s and offer superior permanence and control of the appearance of the final print and are still used today.
George Eastman Museum 2014. History of development of colour processes from tinting to chromogenic film processes of 1970s.

Early photography: pictorialism to modernism

Early colour photography processes produce a feeling of nostalgia for a by-gone leisurely time. As in monochrome photography this ‘elite impressionist aesthetic’ can be enhanced through for example use of chiaroscuro and light, smearing vaseline on the lens, adding brushstrokes or scratches to the film in development process. In colour photography particularly the aesthetic is also partly because of inherent technical limitations of early equipment and processes:

  • Lens aberrations and distortions in perspective
  • Chemicals were unstable, inconsistent and less sensitive leading to colour shifts, grain, limited tonality and dynamic range and requiring long exposure times and hence shallow depth of field and blurring. Effect of long exposures while model tries to be still so get selective movement blur? Giving the reflective feel?
  • Fragile plates and scratches that add to the feeling of human frailty and inevitable passage of time.
  • Edges of the plates? burning and fade?

Processes like hand-colouring and tinting, coupled with the blurriness of the original black and white image give a de-saturated dreamy look. The leisurely feel is enhanced by the very long exposures needed to produce multiple plates in different colours that are then combined. Photographing any action was not possible, and requires shallow depth of field with much of the image dreamily blurred. Grain, scratches and other imperfections are further exaggerated with fragility of glass plates and the nature of pigments and chemicals used.

Colour photography techniques
  • hand colouring of black and white prints
  • monochrome tinting through use of dyes and pigments at the development stage: cyanotypes, carbon prints and gum bichromate prints. They use pigments and bichromated colloids (viscous substances like gelatin or albumen made light-sensitive by adding a bichromate) that harden when exposed to light and become insoluble in water. The resulting prints are characterized by broad tones and soft detail, sometimes resembling paintings or drawings.
  • oil process
  • 3-colour process
  • Autochrome 1907-1935: 3 colour process using potato starch. Soft focus, pointillist grain. Slow process if you want to keep exposures under control.
Colour photographs from 1907: Autochrome and Pictorialism. Ted Forbes 2015 as part as part of his You Tube Art of Photography series. Discusses autochrome process in the context of other early processes, debates on colour photography as art and how we interpret early colour photographs from our current digital perspective. Book Impressionist Photography.
2018 John Thornton and Don Camera: Is pictorialism dead? Looks at the artistic inspira
Debbi Richard 2009 Two short clips from a PBS documentary titled: “American Photography: A Century of Images.” Paul Strand’s straight photography started to re-establish the primacy of black and white as ‘serious’ photography with an emphasis on minimum artifice and attention to tonal abstraction and shapes.
Alfred Steiglitz
Alfred Stieglitz overview of his monochrome work and life, showing his pictorialist art style.
Heinrich Kuhn pictorialism
Overview of Kuhn’s life and work. Ted Forbes 2014 as part of You Tube The Art of Photography series. Interesting discussion of early colour techniques in the context of camera clubs and their debates about colour photography. Detailed discussion of technical challenges of lenses and unstable chemicals and how Kuhn addressed these through scientific experiment and composition to make very evocative images.
Based on book Heinrich Kuhn: The Perfect Photograph
Edward Steichen
Overview of Steichen’s colour and black and white work, including early landscapes. Ted Forbes 2011 as part of You Tube The Art of Photography series. Based on book ‘Steichen’s Legacy’. use of moody low key landscapes. In figure studies takes out facial information to create intensity, drama and mystery. And use of abstraction with harsh lighting to produce patterns. Reduction of the image to just the information needed. Humour in shadows.
Heinrich Kuhn autochrome technique
Neue Galerie New York 2012. Gives a very detailed overview of the autochrome process. Priority of lighting and backlighting to give luminosity coupled with the fragility of the plates. He experimented with colour patches, aiming at being able to apply colour patches like a painter.
Kuhn, Steiglitz and Steichen
Neue Galerie New York 2012. Dr Monika Faber discusses exhibition and book: “Heinrich Kuehn and His American Circle: Alfred Stieglitz and Edward Steichen”. Shows more of his tinted photographs and landscape.
Paul Strand modernism

The Art of Photography 2014 modernist photography using the power of the image to create social awareness. Book: Paul Strand: Sixty Years of Photographs (Aperture)…

Colour film photography: 1970s to contemporary

Overview focusing on era 1970s onwards by Ted Forbes 2013 as part of his You Tube Art of Photography series.
Discusses use of autochrome process in travel photographs by National Geographic.
William Eggleston in 1970s was the person who brought colour photography as respectable fine art.
Saul Leider work was rediscovered in 1990s uses abstraction and faded quality.
Fernando Schiana not high contrast
Auri Gerscht uses splashes of colour in desaturated background.
Dan Winters contemporary muted portraits.
Colours are still not accurate, but that gives a retro- nostalgic feel. Use of colour as part of the composition at time of shooting. White balance is not accurate.
William Eggleston
Saul Leiter
Joel Meyerowitz

see also: Stephen Shore

Contemporary styles

Luigi Ghirri
Ernst Haas

high contrast and use of motion blur through slow shutter speeds leads to abstraction of movement.

Uta Barth

Martin Parr

2.2 Shutterscapes 2: Landscapes of Place Photography Technique

Photoshop: jpg artifact and noise reduction

A very basic explanation of removal of jpg artifacts in the Noise Reduction filter, discussing the potential tensions between different aims. Improves, but does not produce a high quality image.
An interesting approach using Lab Colour mode to separate out the lightness, colour and contrast channels of the image. Artifacts are most evident in the colour and contrast A and B channels. Add Gaussian blur to A and B channels. Higher values give a sort of watercolour effect. Sharpen the lightness channel. Go back to RGB at the end to use filters etc again.
Duplicate the image. On top layer use surface blur – avoids blurring the edges. Change to colour blend mode to get rid of colour noise. Mask areas if necessary. Duplicate again and use dust and scratches filter gets rid of luminance noise. Again use masks to [reserve details. Duplicate again and Reduce Noise filter and use preserve details slider.
Uses Dfine and Lumensia combined in Photoshop.
Uses multiple images as layers and image average.

2.2 Shutterscapes 2: Landscapes of Place 3.3 Developing content: Love and other Islands 4.2 Colours of Shingle 4.2 Outsider on the Edge 4: Audience: Shifting Edges 5.3: Edgescapes 5: Presentation: Zemni 2021 Inspiration

‘Late’ Photography

!!To be updated from Landscape Photography

In his 2003 essay, David Campany comments that:

“One might easily surmise that photography has of late inherited a major role as undertaker, summariser or accountant. It turns up late, wanders through the places where things have happened totting up the effects of the world’s activity.” (‘Safety in Numbness: Some remarks on the problem of “Late Photography”’ (in Campany (ed.), 2007)
This ‘aftermath’ approach dates back to the war photographers of the American Civil War and the Crimean War (1853–56), because of technological limitations of the time. Because of the large plate cameras and slow emulsions, it was not possible to photograph actual combat. Their images focused instead on portraits of soldiers, camp scenes and the aftermath of battles and skirmishes. Their images could not yet be reproduced en masse in the illustrated press, but some of these photographs were used as the basis for woodcut engravings for publications such as The Illustrated London News and Harper’s Weekly.

Although technology today makes it possible – though still difficult –  to capture the heat of war and atrocities, this is not necessarily the most effective way of portraying the horrors of violence.
Examples of photographers using the ‘late’ approach in contemporary landscape include:

  • Joel Meyerowitz’s Aftermath images of Ground Zero in New York
  • Richard Misrach ‘s images of the American Desert show the aftermath of human activity but in a beautified distilled large format.
  • Sophie Ristelhueber ‘s aerial images of the Afghan conflict show the scars left on the landscape
  • Paul Seawright Hidden cold ‘objective’ images of battle sites and minefields in Afghanistan
  • Willie Doherty made very evocative images of the left detritus from conflicts during the Troubles and in the present day.

Other photographers have focused on the precursors – the tension in anticipation of violence.  “not the ‘theatre of war’ but its rehearsal studio” (Campany, 2008, p.46). :

  • An-My Lê’s (to do) series 29 Palms (2004) documents US marine training manoeuvres at a range used to prepare soldiers ahead of deployment in Afghanistan and Iraq.
  • Broomberg and Oliver Chanarin in Chicago (2005) (to do) examine an Israeli military training ground
  • Paul Shambroom’s project Security (2003−07) studied the simulated training sites that are used by the US emergency services and Department of Homeland Security, nicknamed ‘Disaster City’ and ‘Terror Town’.
  • Sarah Pickering in UK has photographed training grounds for the fire and police service. Her images contain no people, aiming to seem like a film set ready for the action.

See Post on Landscape Photography blog: 3.3: ‘Late Photography’

2.2 Shutterscapes 2: Landscapes of Place 6.1: Road to Cabanatuan 6: JourneyasBeginning Photography Technique

Photoshop sketch and line drawings

Jesus Ramirez Photoshop Channel
1) isolate model from background eg select subject and click on add mask. refine selection.make smart object.
2) Duplicate: original, base,
3) duplicate, invert .colour dodge blend. Gaussian blur filter eg 31.8. black and white adjustment layer Charcoal filter. blend mode multiply
4) Lines layer: duplicate BW, glowing edges,invert, multiply blend. levels. blend if to hide detail.
5) Fine tune with mask
6) Add some fine pencil lines with brush tile ultimate pencil
7) Can then replace the original image in the smart object and re-edit the smart filters
1) Create the surface and base image. Mask areas you do not want.
2) Pencil sketch filter Graphic pen . use blend if to vary blackness. Split slider. Decrease opacity. Add a bit of blur .3
3) New layer pencil outline Kyle Ultimate pencil. Clip layer to sketch, so is never darker than under sketch. Can turn off pencil layer top follow the underlying photo if wsnt.
Normal colour dodge approach: BW, BW, copy, invert, blend colour dodge, filter Gaussian Blur
His approach:
Smart Object layer ‘Shadows’
#3 filters: Copy, Gaussian Blur, High Pass, Sketch/notepaper 0 0 25 Levels adjust
Shadows layer: charcoal filter. multiply.
Can add paper texture. Multiply.
Can change image.
Tony Harmer ‘The Design Ninja’ approach.
Uses 1 Smart Object layer
1) Gaussian blur. dial in large value (eg 50) Divide blend mode
2) CRaw filter. Black and white.
3) Can add glowing edges. Subtract blend.
4) Oil paint filter
5) fine tune with local effects using CRaw adjustment brush on new layer
6) Can change the image through re-linking the base file.
Colin Smith Photoshop cafe
1) Duplicate layer CSU black and white Colour Dodge. Gaussian Blur
2) Duplicate again invert
3) Combine to layer group and duplicate. Blur top layer even more. Blend top group to darken. Reduce opacity in top layer
4) Duplicate top layer group increase top blur a lot. Add layer mask, fill black and paint in. Largeish brush 30%. Additional details in face and hair.
5) Select everything SACE for sharpening mode. Overlay blend. High Pass.
Uses brushes and masks.
2.2 Shutterscapes 2: Landscapes of Place In Process Inspiration

Dutch landscapes

View over a Flat Landscape: Jan Josefsz van Goyen (oil on panel 1642) a moody painting of a completely flat landscape with cows, where the top two thirds of the frame is occupied by the grey clouds, but with subtle sunlight breaking through on the horizon line in the far distance.
Landscape with a River Bank : Jan Josefsz van Goyen (oil on panel 1635-1640) a very muted colour painting of the far back of the river with a church – very much like the view over the Cam to Fen Ditton
Flat Landscape with a Broad River: Philips Koninck (oil on canvas c 1648) again very muted colours, dominated by the sky. The sky is now looming overhead with nearer clouds larger and again subtle lighting on the horizon and the river.
Polder Landscape: Paul Joseph Constantin Gabriël (watercolour 1828-1903) simple monochrome image of two barges. Here the focus is on the water and some birds in the foreground. The horizon to a featureless sky is in the middle of the frame.
Landscape: Adriaen van Ostade (oil on panel 1639) a summer image with a very dramatic stormy sky with bright patches of light on the ground from breaks in the cloud. The horizon line is again low just above the bottom third of the frame.
Snowy Landscape with fences in the foreground: Charles Donker etching 1988 a misty simple monochrome print with large featureless sky, a row of skeletal trees of different types silhouetted against it and fences lines through the snow.

Van Ruysdale

Van Goyen

2.2 Shutterscapes 2: Landscapes of Place In Process

Landscape Art (draft notes)

Landscape photography and printmaking draws on a long tradition of landscape art that can inform different styles and approaches for my own work. I want to work more on the underlying theory of landscape composition and bridging elements, perspective etc. Abstraction. To make my landscape photography and printmaking more conscious of the influences on my work and thereby able to subvert and question to create something new.

!!Post needs a lot of sorting out and re-reading of books most relevant to my actual photographic and printmaking work for Assignment 2 ‘Landscaping England’. See discussion on my Landscape Photography blog: Notes to be updated from visits to exhibitions at:
VandA: Constable
Tate Britain: Late Turner and Turner galleries
National Gallery : Pedar Balke
National gallery and elsewhere Maggie Hambling
Tate Britain: John Martin

Definition and overview

Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes, natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, and especially art where the main subject is a wide view, with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. Sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is often an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions, and develop when there is already a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects.

The word “landscape” entered the modern English language as landskip (variously spelt), an anglicization of the Dutch landschap, around the start of the 17th century, purely as a term for works of art, with its first use as a word for a painting in 1598. Within a few decades it was used to describe vistas in poetry, and eventually as a term for real views. However the cognate term landscaef or landskipe for a cleared patch of land had existed in Old English, though it is not recorded from Middle English. Landscape views in art may be entirely imaginary, or copied from reality with varying degrees of accuracy. If the primary purpose of a picture is to depict an actual, specific place, especially including buildings prominently, it is called a topographical view. Such views, extremely common as prints in the West, are often seen as inferior to fine art landscapes, although the distinction is not always meaningful; similar prejudices existed in Chinese art, where literati painting usually depicted imaginary views, while professional court artists painted real views, often including palaces and cities.

The earliest forms of human art depict little that could really be called landscape, although ground-lines and sometimes indications of mountains, trees or other natural features are included. The earliest “pure landscapes” with no human figures are frescos from Minoan Greece of around 1500 BCE. Hunting scenes, especially those set in the enclosed vista of the reed beds of the Nile Delta from Ancient Egypt, can give a strong sense of place, but the emphasis is on individual plant forms and human and animal figures rather than the overall landscape setting.

The two main traditions spring from Western painting and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases. The recognition of a spiritual element in landscape art is present form its beginnings in East Asian art, drawing on Daoism and other philosophical traditions, but in the West only becomes explicit with Romanticism.

Chinese and Japanese traditions

!!Possibly I will do a separate post on this as Japanese ink landscapes and monochrome styles have been important influences on my Black and White photography and printmaking.

Zhan Ziqian, Strolling About in Spring, a very early Chinese landscape, c. 600. Landscape as a subject in itself

In East Asia famous practitioners of imaginary landscapes were highly respected, including several Emperors of both China and Japan. They were often also poets whose lines and images illustrated each other. 

The Chinese ink painting tradition of shan shui (“mountain-water”), or “pure” landscape, in which the only sign of human life is usually a sage, or a glimpse of his hut, uses sophisticated landscape backgrounds to figure subjects, and landscape art of this period retains a classic and much-imitated status within the Chinese tradition.
As in Roman traditions these typically show grand panoramas of imaginary landscapes, backed with a range of spectacular mountains. Sometimes they showed only a distant view, sometimes waterfalls, mist or dead ground bridged the gap between a foreground scene with figures and the distant panoramic vista.

Western tradition

It seems from literary evidence that some rough system of perspective, or scaling for distance was first been developed in Ancient Greece in the Hellenistic period, although no large-scale examples survive. Roman landscapes from the 1st century BCE onwards, especially frescos of landscapes decorating rooms, have been preserved at archaeological sites of Pompeii, Herculaneum and elsewhere, and mosaics. These typically show grand panoramas of imaginary landscapes, generally backed with a range of spectacular mountains, often including sea, lakes or rivers to bridge the gap between a foreground scene with figures and a distant panoramic vista.

History painting came to require an extensive landscape background where appropriate and for several centuries landscapes were regularly promoted to the status of history painting by the addition of small figures to make a narrative scene, typically religious or mythological. In Kenneth Clark’s analysis, underlying European ways to convert the complexity of landscape to an idea were four fundamental approaches:

  • the acceptance of descriptive symbols
  • curiosity about the facts of nature
  • creation of fantasy to allay deep-rooted fears of nature
  • belief in a Golden Age of harmony and order, which might be retrieved.


Hand G, Bas-de-page of the Baptism of Christ,Turin-Milan Hours, Flanders c. 1425 idealised landscape as background

In early Western medieval art interest in landscape disappears almost entirely, kept alive only in copies of Late Antique works such as the Utrecht Psalter; the last reworking of this source, in an early Gothic version, reduces the previously extensive landscapes to a few trees filling gaps in the composition, with no sense of overall space. A revival in interest in nature initially mainly manifested itself in depictions of small gardens such as the Hortus Conclusus or those in millefleur tapestries. The frescos of figures at work or play in front of a background of dense trees in the Palace of the Popes, Avignon are probably a unique survival of what was a common subject. Several frescos of gardens have survived from Roman houses like the Villa of Livia.

During the 14th century Giotto di Bondone and his followers began to acknowledge nature in their work, increasingly introducing elements of the landscape as the background setting for the action of the figures in their paintings. Early in the 15th century, landscape painting was established as a genre in Europe, as a setting for human activity, often expressed in a religious subject, such as the themes of the Rest on the Flight into Egypt, the Journey of the Magi, or Saint Jerome in the Desert. Luxury illuminated manuscripts were very important in the early development of landscape, especially series of the Labours of the Months such as those in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, which conventionally showed small genre figures in increasingly large landscape settings. A particular advance is shown in the less well-knownTurin-Milan Hours, now largely destroyed by fire, whose developments were reflected in Early Netherlandish painting for the rest of the century. The artist known as “Hand G”, probably one of the Van Eyck brothers, was especially successful in reproducing effects of light and in a natural-seeming progression from the foreground to the distant view. This was something other artists were to find difficult for a century or more, often solving the problem by showing a landscape background from over the top of a parapet or window-sill, as if from a considerable height.

Italian Renaissance

Landscape backgrounds for various types of painting became increasingly prominent and skilful during the century. The period around the end of the 15th century saw pure landscape drawings and watercolours from Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Dürer, Fra Bartolomeo and others, but pure landscape subjects in painting and printmaking, still small, were first produced by Albrecht Altdorfer and others of the German Danube School in the early 16th century. 

Landscapes were idealized, mostly reflecting a pastoral ideal drawn from classical poetry which was first fully expressed by Giorgione and the young Titian, and remained associated above all with hilly wooded Italian landscape, which was depicted by artists from Northern Europe who had never visited Italy, just as plain-dwelling literati in China and Japan painted vertiginous mountains. Though often young artists were encouraged to visit Italy to experience Italian light, many Northern European artists could make their living selling Italianate landscapes without ever bothering to make the trip. Indeed, certain styles were so popular that they became formulas that could be copied again and again. Salvator Rosa gave picturesque excitement to his landscapes by showing wilder Southern Italian country, often populated by banditi.

Dutch Landscape

Pieter Brueghel the Elder, The Harvesters, 1565: Peace and agriculture in a pre-Romantic ideal landscape, without sublime terrors

Joachim Patinir in the Netherlands developed the “world landscape” a style of panoramic landscape with small figures and using a high aerial viewpoint, that remained influential for a century, being used and perfected by Pieter Brueghel the Elder. The Italian development of a thorough system of graphical perspective was now known all over Europe, which allowed large and complex views to be painted very effectively.

The publication in Antwerp in 1559 and 1561 of two series of a total of 48 prints (the Small Landscapes) after drawings by an anonymous artist referred to as the Master of the Small Landscapes signalled a shift away from the imaginary, distant landscapes with religious content of the world landscape towards close-up renderings at eye-level of identifiable country estates and villages populated with figures engaged in daily activities. By abandoning the panoramic viewpoint of the world landscape and focusing on the humble, rural and even topographical, the Small Landscapes set the stage for Netherlandish landscape painting in the 17th century. After the publication of the Small Landscapes, landscape artists in the Low Countries either continued with the world landscape or followed the new mode presented by the Small Landscapes.

Rembrandt, The Three Trees, 1643, etching

Dutch Golden Age painting of the 17th century saw the dramatic growth of landscape painting, in which many artists specialized, and the development of extremely subtle realist techniques for depicting light and weather. There are different styles and periods, and sub-genres of marine and animal painting, as well as a distinct style of Italianate landscape. Most Dutch landscapes were relatively small, but landscapes in Flemish Baroque painting, still usually peopled, were often very large, above all in the series of works that Peter Paul Rubens painted for his own houses. Landscape prints were also popular, with those of Rembrandt and the experimental works of Hercules Seghers usually considered the finest.

The Dutch tended to make smaller paintings for smaller houses. Some Dutch landscape specialties named in period inventories include the Batalje, or battle-scene; theManeschijntje, or moonlight scene; the Bosjes, or woodland scene; the Boederijtje, or farm scene,and the Dorpje or village scene.Though not named at the time as a specific genre, the popularity of Roman ruins inspired many Dutch landscape painters of the period to paint the ruins of their own region, such as monasteries and churches ruined after the Beeldenstorm.The popularity of landscapes in the Netherlands was in part a reflection of the virtual disappearance of religious painting in a Calvinist society, and the decline of religious painting in the 18th and 19th centuries all over Europe combined with Romanticism to give landscapes a much greater and more prestigious place in 19th-century art than they had assumed before.

Jan van GoyenDune landscape, c. 1630-1635, an example of the “tonal” style in Dutch Golden Age painting

French 17th and 18th Century

Claude Lorrain, Ascanius Shooting the Stag of Sylvia, 1682. The landscape as history painting.

Compositional formulae using elements like the repoussoir were evolved which remain influential in modern photography and painting, notably by Poussin  and Claude Lorrain, both French artists living in 17th century Rome and painting largely classical subject-matter, or Biblical scenes set in the same landscapes.

French landscape artists still most often wanted to keep their classification within the hierarchy of genres as history painting by including small figures to represent a scene from classical mythology or the Bible.

French painters were slower to develop landscape painting, but from about the 1830sJean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and other painters in the Barbizon School established a French landscape tradition that would become the most influential in Europe for a century, with the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists for the first time making landscape painting the main source of general stylistic innovation across all types of painting.

English landscape: 19th Century

In England, landscapes had initially been mostly backgrounds to portraits, typically suggesting the parks or estates of a landowner, though mostly painted in London by an artist who had never visited his sitter’s rolling acres; the English tradition was founded by Anthony van Dyck and other mostly Flemish artists working in England. In the 18th century,watercolour painting, mostly of landscapes, became an English speciality, with both a buoyant market for professional works, and a large number of amateur painters, many following the popular systems found in the books of Alexander Cozens and others. By the beginning of the 19th century the English artists with the highest modern reputations were mostly dedicated landscapists, showing the wide range of Romantic interpretations of the English landscape found in the works of John Constable, J.M.W. Turner and Samuel Palmer. However all these had difficulty establishing themselves in the contemporary art market, which still preferred history paintings and portraits.

The 18th century saw the rise of the topographical print, often intended to be framed and hung on a wall. These depicted more or less accurately a real view in a way that landscape painting rarely did. Initially these were mostly centred on a building, but over the course of the century, with the growth of the Romantic movement pure landscapes became more common. Landscapes in watercolour became a distinct specialism, above all in England.


  • frequent use of the Golden ratio to position horizons at one or two thirds levels in paintings
  • uses a lanes, roads and other devices to lead the eye into the picture
  • interest in plays of light and naturalistic colour
  • linear as well as aerial perspective
  • use of triangles and implied triangles on foreground objects like carts, boats etc.
  • later starts to experiment with dynamic and impasto brushstrokes, as precursor to Impressionists

Turner tends to have his horizons lower, or non-existent. And makes lots of use of dramatic swirls for storms, and brilliant sunsets. But still positions vertical elements and objects around the thirds line.

Romantic movement

The Romantic movement intensified the existing interest in landscape art, and remote and wild landscapes, which had been one recurring element in earlier landscape art, now became more prominent. Caspar David Friedrich had a distinctive style, influenced by his Danish training, where a distinct national style, drawing on the Dutch 17th-century example, had developed. To this he added a quasi-mystical Romanticism.

  • The Trees in the Moonlight Use of diagonals and muted colours.
  • Two Men by the Sea at Moonrise Use of strong horizontals with central horizon line. Silhouettes against an oval pool of light. ‘High Dynamic Range’.


Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog/Mists, 1818. A classic image of German Romanticism. Strong contrast in colours and between foreground and background with dramatic silhouette.  Quasi symmetrical balance between right and left side of the image. Diagonals leading to the centre figure.
Claude Monet, 'Poplars on the Epte' 1891

from search

James Abbott McNeill Whistler
James Abbott McNeill Whistler, 'Nocturne: Blue and Silver - Cremorne Lights' 1872
mists, high horizons. Strong horizontals and verticals.

Nocturne: Blue and Silver – Cremorne Lights 1872
Nocturne: Blue and Gold – Old Battersea Bridge c.1872-5

20th Century

Although certainly less dominant in the period after World War I, many significant artists still painted landscapes in the wide variety of styles exemplified by Neil Welliver, Alex Katz, Milton Avery, Peter Doig, Andrew Wyeth, David Hockney and Sidney Nolan.


2.2 Shutterscapes 2: Landscapes of Place

Presentation: Stock Image Libraries

A key aim in this module was investigation of the differing requirements of major stock image libraries and landscape photography libraries and then submitting relevant images and starting to get concrete professional and audience feedback on my work.

Stock Photography outlets

  • Shutterstock: a good place to start because they give good support materials and useful technical feedback. On You Tube many contributors make most of their income from Shutterstock because of volume of sales
  • iStock Photo (part of Getty Images): photos, illustrations, video. Take 45% commission.
  • Pond5
  • Alamy
  • Dreamstime
  • Adobe Stock (took over Fotofolia)
  • Smugmug Pro can make good money. Make own website and pricing.
  • Foap: amateur phone Ap where you can sell direct from your phone
  • Clashot: sell photos through an Ap you set your own price 50-80$
  • Snapwire
  • EyeEm


I identified Shutterstock as the best place to start because You Tube contributors said Shutterstock was easy to use and very good at giving technical support and feed back.

Shutterstock Technical Guidelines

Inspect all images at 100% resolution

1) For Commercial Stock: trademark issues (send as editorial)
  • no brand names
  • no IPP
  • keywords should not contain trademarks
  • no isolated pictures of single buildings and avoid landmark modern buildings
2) Noise
  • filmgrain
  • compression artefacts
  • posterisation
  • check skies and shadows
3) Composition/Concept
  • what is concept? what could it be used for?
  • arrangement not optimal. leading lines, rule of thirds. use in-camera grid
  • distracting elements
  • horizon line crooked
  • negative space so customers can insert text
  • shoot from different angles
4) Focus
  • Focus a bit too soft. try single and continuous focus
  • Camera shake: stabilise yourself against a tree, elbows in and don’t breathe
  • avoid zoom lens or move closer
5) Exposure
  • under or over-exposed – use histogram and correct
  • not good lighting
  • avoid midday, ‘golden hours’ 1 hour before or after sun
If rejected
  • look at on-line resources
  • use critique section on forums
  • sometimes they do make an error
  • make correction and re-submit

So I started to develop a quite diverse portfolio – following You Tube advice not to specialise at this stage or narrow my stylistic options. Before selecting images and places to work on I did a search of the Shutterstock image library to see which subjects, places and styles were over-represented and for which places and styles I could fill a market gap that was in line with subjects and styles that appeal to me. There were few images for all the places I selected, and the images that did exist were overwhelmingly high/over-saturation high over-sharpness images. Many of which I find very ‘over the top’ – but was not sure if images were that way because they were what the market wanted or whether other types of image might be successful also.

See Shutterstock Experience

The general advice from You Tube contributors with long experience of stock photography with similar tastes/social aims to my own is to develop a range of different types of image and style. This means that the numbers of people discovering your images will be much larger, encouraging them to then look at your whole portfolio. This also serves to test a number of different market and types of user. Then once something sells, to produce more of that style/subject matter and develop a number of niche markets. This is a different approach from higher end professional photography portfolio sales where it is important to have a more distinctive ‘voice’.

My Shutterstock portfolio includes:

  • Lake District (48 images in colour and monochrome processed in Lightroom and/or Viveza)
  • Norfolk: Burnham Overy Staithe (34 colour images processed in Lightroom, including abstract seascapes)
  • Suffolk: Orford Marshes (10 colour, monochrome and split tone images processed in Lightroom and/or Silver FX)
  • Norfolk: Hunstanton (39 ‘English seaside on a cold New Year’ colour images processed in Lightroom) and Norfolk: Cromer (5 colour images including 2 that were substantially processed in Lightroom to correct lighting and perspective, and 2 ‘nostalgic sea-side images in Analog Pro)
  • Cambridge: River Cam (17 abstract and 17 semi-abstract images and 18 ‘Abstract reflections’ that I aim to develop further together with more ‘Edgelands’ images as part of Assignment 4 ‘Cambridge Chronicles’
  • Suffolk: Aldeburgh (28 high colour images of Aldeburgh Carnival 2016 around ideas of ‘Englishness’ and ‘English Holiday’ ‘English seaside’ and quirkiness processed in Lightroom only) that I intend to revisit as part of work on ‘English seaside nostalgia’ together with:
  • Suffolk: Orford Quay (16 ‘Brexit’/’British’ images processed in Lightroom that will form part of Assignment 5 ‘A Very British Day Out’ together with photos of National Trust’s Orford Ness for which I need a professional photographer’s license to publish)

My experience so far has been broadly positive – good resources database on areas like intellectual and privacy rights, technical tutorials and quick and helpful response to some queries I had. I have learned a lot technically. and the experience has taught me a lot so far. Most of my 220 images were accepted when submitted first time (having consulted all their documentation first). The main reasons for rejection have been because of issues like titling, editorial vs commercial categorisation or keywording. Only 3 have so far been terminally rejected on jpg quality issues, but even these I think I plan to re-submit as more artistic creations using NikFX.

Sales have been less successful. Shutterstock is generally considered by You Tube contributors to give highest income because of volume of sales rather than percentage of price. But in order to make substantial income you need to have around 2-3,000 images and constantly have a drip of new images going on. I have so far sold two images for the huge total of USc50! The first download was someone local in Isleham, Suffolk and the second someone in Korea.

The first two images are suitable for backgrounds, rather than editorial. They are also desaturated and different from the overwhelming majority of highly sharpened and highly saturated tourist images. Possibly this distinctive style is one of the ‘niches’ where I may eventually choose to focus. Particularly as I enjoy the experience of taking and processing these types of landscape image and would like to develop my photographic as well as software processing skills.

Carnival image

A third image accepted after two months (showing that images are not necessarily lost) was

Adobe Stock

2.2 Shutterscapes 2: Landscapes of Place 4: Audience: Shifting Edges 5: Presentation: Zemni 2021 In Process

Fay Godwin

!! to update with my own detailed thoughts on Land, The Edge of the Land and Our Forbidden Land as I critique my own work in Assignment 5.


Fay Godwin (17 February 1931 – 27 May 2005) was a British photographer known for her black-and-white landscapes of the British countryside and coast. Her approach was very intuitive and felt that images where she had thought too deeply about composition and meaning had less ‘visceral’ power as a response to what she was seeing.

She was self-taught and her obsession with photography started with family photos and producing photo albums for neighbours. produced portraits and documentary work of factory workers. Much of the emotional charge of her images she attributes to difficulties in her personal life: traumatic marriage break-up, cancer and struggles to support her children that led her to throw herself into her work. She produced portraits of writers and also documentary work on factory workers. But it is for her landscape photography that she is best known.

Justin Jones overview of her work in the context of her life and politics . Discusses many of her iconic photographs. And what he sees as some of the gender dimensions of her work – though I feel some of these distinctions may be a bit exaggerated and not sure how far Fay herself would see her work in this way.

Landscape photography and activism

She was a very vocal critic of the ‘picturesque’ and her photographs aim to capture landscapes as they really are with all their historical, social and political complexity.

“I am wary of picturesque pictures. I get satiated with looking at postcards in local newsagents and at the picture books that are on sale, many of which don’t bear any relation to my own experience of the place… The problem for me about these picturesque pictures, which proliferate all over the place, is that they are a very soft warm blanket of sentiment, which covers everybody’s idea about the countryside… It idealises the country in a very unreal way.”
(Fay Godwin 1986 South Bank Show Produced and directed by Hilary Chadwick, London Weekend Television quoted Alexander 2013 p84.)

Comprehensive Melvin Bragg overview of her life and work from old TV programme. Discusses Godwin’s landscape photography in the context of conventions and innovation in landscape art and critique of ‘picturesque’. Includes many interviews with Fay herself on her responses to landscape and approaches to photography.

She combined her landscape photography with environmental activism against the ravages of 1980s Thatcherism and as President of the Ramblers’ Association.

Mavis Nicholson interviews Fay Godwin on the ‘In with Mavis’ program from 1991. She talks a lot about her photography in the context of her environmental activism, particularly destruction of landscapes because of building of the Channel Tunnel.
Selection of prints from the 25th anniversary of Fay Godwin’s seminal exhibition and book Land from the original exhibition.…
Peter Cattrell worked as Fay Godwin’s printer. Interesting discussion of printing choices he made. And discussion of her last experiments placing objects on photographic plates as experiments. Also some interesting insights into her personality -as well as poignancy of her fragility, illnesses and death.
  • Rebecca the Lurcher. 1973
  • The Oldest Road: An Exploration of the Ridgeway. 1975. With J.R.L. Anderson.
  • Remains of Elmet. Rainbow Press, 1979. With poems by Ted Hughes.
    • Remains of Elmet. Faber and Faber, 1979. ISBN 9780571278763.
    • Elmet. Faber and Faber, 1994. With new additional poems and photographs.
    • Remains of Elmet. Faber and Faber, 2011. ISBN 9780571278763.
  • The Saxon Shore Way. Hutchinson (publisher), 1983. With Alan Sillitoe. ISBN 0091514606.
  • Land. Heinemann, 1985. With John Fowles. ISBN 0434303054.
  • !!Edge of the Land
  • Glassworks & Secret Lives. 1999. ISBN 0953454517.
  • Landmarks. Stockport: Dewi Lewis, 2002. ISBN 1-899235-73-6. With an introduced by Simon Armitage and an essay by Roger Taylor.
2.2 Shutterscapes 2: Landscapes of Place 4.2 Colours of Shingle 4: Audience: Shifting Edges 5.3: Edgescapes 5: Presentation: Zemni 2021 In Process

Inspiration: Martin Parr

2.1: Bridge 2.2 Shutterscapes 2: Landscapes of Place 4: Audience: Shifting Edges 6: JourneyasBeginning In Process

Technique: Digital software workflow

A key focus of my work in this module, particularly Part 2: Landscapes of Place has been to significantly deepen and widen my technical expertise in Lightroom and Nik FX, to add to my further exploration of Photoshop and Illustrator from Project 2.1 Hagg Wood. This required a steep learning curve from You Tube videos and tutorials on Lightroom, NikFX and Photoshop .

My conclusions of workflow are that the key is to explore a range of image possibilities through initial experimentation as unexpected discoveries are often made – the more one becomes familiar with the software the more possibilities open up. This helps clarify what one is aiming to communicate – often a number of different interpretations that are relevant for different purposes and combinations of narrative. Then images can be reviewed and refined:


  • most images intended for professional ‘straight’ colour, black and white and/or split tone photography treatment can be produced using Lightroom alone. If the source photographs are large size RAW images with little tonal clipping etc, then much of what can be done in Nik FX or Photoshop can be done more quickly in Lightroom, using tone and colour sliders, adjustment gradients and filters, with the result already linked to an image management catalogue ready for multiple web upload, printing, book production and slideshows etc with metadata.
  • using History and Snapshots in Lightroom are very useful to keep record of the adjustments made for easy annotation as metadata.
  • if other software are to be used, it is still useful to use Lightroom first for quick spot removal, cropping with guides, removal of tonal clipping and getting an even tone distribution, file-naming and metadata input then editing from Lightroom in the other software so that the result is automatically added to the image catalogue.

See posts:

Nik FX

Nik FX Dfine is quicker and more effective for noise reduction where significant amounts of noise are present.

Viveza, Silver FX and Color FX are easier and more intuitive to use than Lightroom or Photoshop for ‘painting in’ lighting effects using a mouse. The use of control points is much quicker, and produces more targeted and subtle as well as dramatic effects differentiating different parts of the image for depth and leading the eye through the image.

Silver FX, Analog Pro and Color FX can quickly produce a number of interesting image variants that can then be further tweaked either in Lightroom and/or Photoshop.

Silver FX, Analog Pro and Color FX are particularly useful for easily converting low resolution images with noise and jpg artifacts or high levels of highlight/shadow clipping into interesting creative images. These can then be further tweaked either in Lightroom and/or Photoshop.

Where only one or two FX are needed, it is quicker to do this directly from Lightroom and this then exports directly into the catalogues and collections
Where a series of FX and variations are needed, with or without Photoshop editing on top, this is best done through editing as a Photoshop smart object and stacking filters as alternative versions that can be switched on and off and exported as separate tiff files.

See posts:


is needed for producing photographic positives for printmaking and painting and artistic effects and blending and compositing multiple images in photo-montage.

See posts:

Software for digital art: iPad and Corel Painter

For digital art I prefer:

  • iPad software like Procreate, ArtRage, Sjketchbook Pro and SketchClub are more expressive and easier to use for digital drawing and painting See iPad explorations
  • Corel Painter is better for high end digital watercolour and painting (still to be properly explored).